This article explains the concepts that CrashPlan uses to back up your data.
In this example scenario, CrashPlan is using its default settings and is backing up your user home directory.
CrashPlan constantly watches for new and changed files within your home directory with what we call the real-time file watcher. It adds new and changed files to a to-do list. When you create a document, the real-time file watcher sees that you've created this document and adds it to the to-do list for backup.
This is what happens when CrashPlan starts backing up your document:
- Backup begins with a process called data de-duplication. CrashPlan analyzes a small piece of the file (a block), and checks to see if that block was backed up previously.
- If CrashPlan determines that it has already backed up this block, CrashPlan moves on and analyzes the next block.
- If the block has not yet been backed up, CrashPlan:
- Compresses the block to save storage space
- Encrypts the block to secure the data
- Sends the block to the backup destination
Data is securely encrypted throughout this process.
The process repeats for the next block within the file until CrashPlan has analyzed and backed up the entire file. In this way, only unique information is backed up, which saves bandwidth and storage and makes restoring faster.
Data de-duplication occurs on each computer. If you have the same file on two different computers, the file will be backed up twice—once for each computer.
New Files And File Changes
When you make changes to the document, CrashPlan's real-time file watcher sees that the file has changed, and CrashPlan puts the file back into the to-do list. Only the changes are actually sent to the destination, however, not the entire file. The changes are backed up while you work, creating a new version of your document.
In this example, you've added a paragraph (highlighted in red):
- CrashPlan's data de-duplication scans the file looking for new blocks of data.
- The new (red) data blocks are:
- Compressed to save space
- Encrypted for security
- Transmitted to the backup destination for storage
By default, a new version of the file is backed up every 15 minutes. This interval is controlled by the New version setting. We recommend keeping the 15-minute default in most cases.
How CrashPlan Detects Changes
CrashPlan checks for changes in two ways to make sure your changes are backed up:
- A real-time file watcher
- Uses few resources because it works directly with your computer's operating system
- Works in the background without you noticing
- File system scan
- Requires more resources
- Runs at 3 am (by default) to avoid interfering with you while you're using your computer
Prioritizing Files For Backup
Of course, you probably have more than one file on your computer that you'd like backed up. CrashPlan backs up the newest and most recently changed files first. This ensures that the most recent versions of your files—what you're working on right now—are backed up first, using this priority order:
- Newer, smaller files
- Newer, larger files
- Older, smaller files
- Older, larger files
If you have very large files that change frequently (such as multiple-GB virtual machine disks), and it seems like backup never completes, try creating a backup set for those large files with a longer New version interval. This gives CrashPlan more time to back up other files before it needs to back up the changes within the very large file or files.
Specifying Backup Priority
If you choose to enable backup sets, you can specify the priority of each set. This allows you to specify which files should be backed up first, if your situation doesn't fit the default prioritization above.
When multiple backup sets back up to a single destination, there are some special considerations for nonstandard backup settings.
Backing Up To Multiple Destinations
We always recommend that you back up to multiple backup destinations. When CrashPlan backs up to multiple destinations, it sends files to each destination at the same time. This ensures that each destination has the same collection of files.
CrashPlan stores each computer's backup is stored separately at each destination. Because each computer's backup is in a separate folder, you can seed your backup to another computer by physically transporting a backup folder there.
In this example, John and Michelle are backing up to Chris. This is what it looks like on Chris's computer:
Is My Backup Starting Over?
Occasionally, CrashPlan's data de-duplication needs to re-scan your files to see what's already been backed up. When this happens, it may look like CrashPlan is backing up all your files from the beginning, but it is actually reviewing each block to see what's been backed up already. If CrashPlan is re-scanning your files, you may see one or more of the following:
- Progress is much, much faster than a full initial backup because information that has already been backed up is not re-sent.
- All your files are available for restore during this process.
- The amount of space used by your backed up files at the destination is consistent with the size of your file selection and backup completion percentage. To verify the amount of space used:
- Select Destinations and choose a destination type (for example, Cloud)
- Select a destination and note the Space used.
CrashPlan's cache includes information on de-duplicated data. You'll experience the above behavior if CrashPlan needs to rebuild its cache for any reason. This is something that happens on occasion under normal use.